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Dit is die eerste uitgawe van die NGTT vir 2003. Soos in die verlede bevat ook hierdie uitgawe ’n groot aantal artikels van hoogstaande gehalte. Dit is verblydend dat daar ook artikels met ’n teologiese strekking uit ander dissiplines soos die Opvoedkunde en die Musiekwetenskap is. In hierdie uitgawe is daar ook ’n artikel van prof Isak Spangenberg oor die Nuwe Hervorming (Wat moet ons weet en wat kan ons nog glo?) asook ’n reaksie van prof Hermie van Zyl (Wat moet ons as Christene nog glo?). Hierdie twee artikels word geplaas onder meer vanweë die aktualiteit van die debat oor die Nuwe Hervorming en om eerstehandse inligting ter tafel te kry. By die boekresensies verskyn daar ’n resensie deur prof Conrad Wethmar van die boek van Piet Muller (red), naamlik Die Nuwe Hervorming.

Die Andrew Murray-prysfonds het vanjaar vir die eerste keer óók ’n toekenning gemaak vir die beste artikel uit ’n teologiese tydskrif in Suid-Afrika. Die paneel beoordelaars was buitelandse teoloë. Dit is vir die Redaksie baie aangenaam om aan te kondig dat ’n artikel wat in die NGTT verskyn het die wenner van vanjaar se prys is, te wete die artikel van Dirkie Smit In die diens van die tale Kanaäns? Oor Sistematiese Teologie vandag wat in die uitgawe van Maart & Junie 2002 verskyn het. Dit was prof Smit se intreerede aan die Fakulteit Teologie. Baie geluk aan prof Smit. Mag hierdie ontwikkeling in die Andrew Murray-prysfonds as aansporing dien vir almal wat bydraes tot teologiese tydskrifte in ons land lewer.

By die Teologiese Fakulteit van die Vrystaatse Universiteit tree prof Pieter Potgieter eersdaags af nadat hy reeds vanaf einde Desember 2002 die dekaanspos ontruim het en met verlof is. Prof Hermie van Zyl het hom opgevolg as dekaan. Prof Potgieter was ’n gereelde skrywer in die NGTT en ook ’n sterk leier in die NG Kerk. Aan die einde van Maart vanjaar het proff Flip Theron en J C (Hannes) Adonis as dosente onderskeidelik in Sistematiese Teologie en Ekklesiologie aan die Kweekskool afgetree. By die Fakulteit in Pretoria het prof Dons Kritzinger ook in hierdie dae afgetree. Al hierdie kollegas was ook gereelde skrywers in die NGTT en baie aktief in hulle onderskeie kerkverbande. Vir al die kollegas wat afgetree het, bid ons mooi en goeie jare toe vorentoe. Prof Bram van de Beek dra sy artikel in hierdie uitgawe op aan prof Theron. Ook aan Hermie van Zyl bid ons baie sterkte toe met die verantwoordelike taak wat hy nou moet verrig.

By die Kweekskool op Stellenbosch het drr Louis Jonker en David Simon by die dosentegeledere aangesluit in onderskeidelik Ou Testament en Missiologie, terwyl prof Gert Steyn in Pretoria in Nuwe Testament aangestel is. Ons heet graag die kollegas namens die NGTT baie welkom.

Op Sondagoggend 23 Februarie 2003 is dr Willie Brown, die oudste seun van prof en mev Eddie Brown, baie skielik aan ’n hartaanval oorlede. Willie was benewens ’n geliefde leraar in die Monte Vista-gemeente ’n baie aktiewe en produktiewe kerkhistorikus en sy heengaan laat ’n groot leemte. Ons innige meegevoel aan Mariana en hulle kinders, sy ouers en skoonmoeder en sy broers en suster. Mag julle almal die vertroosting van die Heilige Gees op ’n baie besondere wyse ondervind.

In die artikels van prof H A J Kruger oor Jesaja 61 (Dele I en II, in die vorige uitgawe van die tydskrif) het die rekenaar nie die korrekte Hebreeuse lettertipe geselekteer nie. Lesers word versoek om verwysings na Hebreeuse terme in Stuttgartensia na te slaan.

P Coertzen (Redakteur)

Fakulteit Teologie

Universiteit Stellenbosch

Maart 2003

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Brink, G W
University of Stellenbosch

Archbishop Daniel James Augustine Kanyiles, a Khoi religious, political and cultural leader

ABSTRACT

The very large imposing figure of Archbishop Daniel James Kanyiles has made a significant contribution to the South African religious, cultural and political landscape. From his base in Ritchie, along the Modder River outside Kimberley in the Northern Cape, Kanyiles presides as Patriarch of the Independent African Orthodox Church and life-long Chairperson of the Griekwa Volks Organisasie (sic). Furthermore, he is also Paramount Chief of Griqualand West and the fifteen Khoi groups south of the Gariep (Orange River). Moreover, he has also left his footprints in the political arena.

1. INTRODUCTION

The South African ecclesiastical landscape is crowded with a myriad of bishops, pastors, priests, etcetera. One of them is Archbishop Daniel James Augustine Kanyiles of the Independent African Orthodox Church (IAOC). This clergyman’s work and influence extend far beyond the city limits of Ritchie, his home base along the Modder River in the Northern Cape.

This study is an ecclesiological analysis of Kanyiles’ theology, his ministry, his political and cultural activities. No full-length work had been undertaken on Kanyiles and he is only mentioned in a few works (Cloete 1986:xi, 16, 17, 19; Waldeman 2001:56-58, 72 -73; Konsepverslag insake Geskiedenis, Griekwa-belangegroepe en Leierskap, p 32 [undated and unpublished]). This study is exploratory and ongoing. Furthermore, Kanyiles has written no theological treatises, etcetera. This fact makes the exploration of his thought extremely difficult.

2. A SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF ARCHBISHOP KANYILES

Daniel James Augustine Kanyiles was born on 6 August 1924 at Jacobsdal in the Orange Free State (Konsepverslag, p 32). Soon after his birth the family moved to Kimberley. He completed his primary school education at the Lutheran Primary School in Beaconsfield. He did grade 8-10 at the Lyndhurst Secondary School. During 1946 he joined the South African Police (SAP) where he rose through the ranks and became a detective. He served until May 1964. Meanwhile Kanyiles began to study theology at the St Augustine of Hippo College under Bishop Daniel William Alexander, his godfather and founder of the African Orthodox Church (AOC). During 1959 Kanyiles became Paramount Chief of the Griquas in Griqualand West. At this time he was also a very good soccer player and actively participated in this sport until 1965 when he retired. After his retirement he served as soccer official in the Griqualand West area. In 1966 Bishop Alexander ordained him as priest in the AOC. In 1969 he resigned from the AOC and founded the Griekwa Volkskerk (GVK). He served in this denomination until 1971. In this year the AOC leadership approached Kanyiles to take over the reigns of the AOC as Bishop Alexander had died the previous year. In December 1971 Kanyiles therefore resigned from the GVK. On 2 July 1972 he was consecrated as bishop and the next day he became archbishop and patriarch of the AOC. In 1979 Kanyiles moved from Kimberley to Ritchie and began to organise the parish of St Luke the Evangelist.

The Archbishop is also a cultural leader and serves inter alia as chairperson of the Griekwa Volks Organisasie (GVO). He has been in this position since 1959 and was appointed for life. As already stated, Kanyiles is also Paramount Chief of the Griquas of Griqualand West and the fifteen Khoi tribes south of the Gariep. Finally, Kanyiles is also a political leader. In the early 1980s he and others founded the Griekwa Volksparty (GVP). This party broke up after the 1984 tricameral government election. In the 1990s the Archbishop became involved in the National Party (NP) (currently the New National Party [NNP]). He is this party’s Ritchie chairperson and also serves as district chairperson and has represented the NP in the National Council of Provinces and the Northern Cape Provincial Assembly.

3. ARCHBISHOP KANYILES’ THEOLOGY

It is tough to fathom Kanyiles’ theology due to a lack of personal theological writings in which he articulates his beliefs. Also, due to the fact that he preaches extemporaneously, there are no sermons from which to gauge his theological thought. On closer scrutiny, however, one can discern two building blocks, namely his Khoi background, and his Orthodox faith.

3.1. Kanyiles’ Khoi identity as source of his theology

Kanyiles’ parental home, his early church life, his participation in the GVO, his ministry in the GVK, his membership of the GVP and his environment enhanced his Khoi and Griqua identity (the Griqua are part of the Khoi peoples) (see Waldeman 2001:118-151). At home young Daniel’s parents nurtured their children’s Griqua identity (conversation with author at Ritchie on 26 May 2000). Daniel is the youngest of three siblings. The parents told their children Griqua folk tales and about Griqua heroes. They made them aware of the various !Naus (stages of transition in a Khoi person’s life) (see Boezak & Brink 2000; Hoff 1995 for a discussion of the various !Naus). The parents also instilled a love for family and neighbours in their offspring.

At church Daniel saw his godfather, Bishop Alexander, in action (see Johnson 1999 for an overview of Alexander’s life). Although not a Griqua and originally from Port Elizabeth, Alexander was influenced by Griqua religious life and instilled it into his congregation. Young Daniel’s parents were co-founders of the St Augustine of Hippo parish in Beaconsfield, Kimberley and served as officers for many years. Here Daniel served as altar boy and regularly assisted his godfather at mass. During the week this event occurred before he went to school. Daniel also observed the congregation at worship on Sunday mornings and learnt the rudiments of Griqua spirituality.

Kanyiles’ participation in the GVO further enhanced his Khoi identity in general and his Griqua identity particularly. Paramount Nicholaas Waterboer II founded this organisation in 1955 to promote Griqua interests in the Northern Cape (Konsepverslag, p 32). Waterboer handed over the leadership of this organisation to Kanyiles on 13 April 1959. One of the stated aims of the GVO is the maintenance of the Griqua identity. Kanyiles often alludes to Griqua pride. One such occasion was on 15 September 1970 (Griekwa Volks Organisasie 1970-1971, Notuleboek). For more details about Kanyiles’ participation in the GVO, see paragraph 6.1.

Kanyiles’ Khoi and Griqua identity was further strengthened by his participation in the GVK (for more details see par 4.2). Its worship influenced Kanyiles’ Griqua roots. Griquas in their churches, for example, do not sing from hymn-books. Griqua children from a very tender age learn the rudiments of their faith. Furthermore, they have a deep-seated love for their church (Jan Coetzee in Dagbreek en Landstem, 17 Aug 1967). Kanyiles served as minister in the GVK from 1969 to 1971. Is it here that he developed the custom of preaching extemporaneously?

Kanyiles’ Khoi and Griqua identity was further enhanced by his membership of the GVP in the 1980s. Along with Mr Peter Marais (who later became Mayor of Cape Town and Premier of the Western Cape) and others he helped to found this party. One of the GVP’s aims was to get Griquas elected to the 1984 tricameral government (Brink-Kanyiles conversation on 26 May 2001). During this election campaign Kanyiles often emphasised Griqua unity. He urged the Griquas to vote for their own instead of for Coloureds (2 April 1988, speech before the Griekwa Nasionale Raad at the Craggs, Plettenberg Bay).

Griqualand West, home of the Griquas, also helped to shape Kanyiles’ Khoi and Griqua identity. He has lived his entire life in this area. He has seen the mighty Gariep and the other rivers in action. He can slaughter a sheep and he knows the beauty of a thunderstorm and the veld in spring. He knows every town in Griqualand West and regularly travels in this area.

One can summarise by saying that these various Khoi and Griqua elements influenced Kanyiles’ theology and manifests themselves in his manner of worship and his ministry. To quote one example: at the ordainment of an officer a sheep is usually slaughtered. This occurs because Kanyiles see this event as a !Nau in that person’s life. At a !Nau a sheep is usually slaughtered to commemorate that event.

3.2. Kanyiles’ Orthodox faith as source of his theology

What is the Orthodox Faith and how has it influenced Kanyiles? Here follows a summary of this tradition (see Crim, Bullard & Shinn [eds] 1981:552-553; Ware 1963; Meyendorff 1778 & 1994; Lossky 1978 for more details). The word “orthodox” comes from two Greek words: orthos and doxa, which respectively mean “straight” and “belief”. So orthodox can be translated as “right belief”. It is also called “Eastern” because it originated in the eastern part of the Roman Empire (Byzantium). The various self-governing Orthodox communities are hierarchical, headed by a Patriarch, a Metropolitan or Archbishop. The current patriates are those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Russia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Georgia in Russia. The Orthodox Tradition is currently world-wide.

Tradition, according to Orthodox belief, is transmitted through the Bible, the Creeds, the doctrinal and canonical decisions and formulations of the Ecumenical Councils. There have been seven councils thus far: Nicea 325 AD, Constantinople 381 AD, Ephesus 341 AD, Chalcedon 451 AD, Constantinople 553 AD, Constantinople 680 AD and Nicea 787 AD.

What is Orthodox worship and theology like? Its aim is mystical union with God. This entails a gradual movement to God. Liturgy is an act of clergy and laity working together (Ware 1963:281-303; The Negro Churchman, Jan-Jul 1923, Mar 1925). Like Roman Catholicism the Orthodox Faith also observes seven sacraments. These are baptism, chrismation (confirmation), eucharist, confession, holy orders, marriage and anointing the sick. There are three holy orders: the deacon, priest and bishop. There are two “minor orders”: the subdeacon and reader. Only a deacon can ordain a priest or deacon and the consecration of a bishop requires the laying on of hands of three or at least two other bishops. Moreover, there are two types of Orthodox priests: the “white” or married priests and the “black” or monastic priests. There are several more ecclesiastical titles in the Orthodox Tradition.

How did the Independent African Orthodox Church (IAOC) come into contact with the Orthodox faith? It occurred through Bishop McGuire, the founder of the AOC, when Bishop Joseph Rene Villate consecrated him on 28 September 1921 (for more details of this event, see par 4.2). At the time of his consecration McGuire was an ordained Anglican priest (The Negro Churchman, Jan 1923). Newman is correct when he says, “The line of apostolic succession through which McGuire and the AOC eventually found the episcopate was crucial” (The Negro Churchman, Jan 1976). The denomination shifted from Anglicanism to Orthodoxy. Through Villate the denomination switch can draw its apostolic succession all the way to ancient Antioch. This line was extended to South Africa when McGuire consecrated the reverend Daniel William Alexander Bishop of the AOC in 1927. Alexander in turn consecrated Ice Walter Mbino, who subsequently consecrated Kanyiles as bishop. It was in Kanyiles’ reign as archbishop that the AOC became the Independent African Orthodox Church (IAOC). The rationale for this event, according to Kanyiles, was to distinguish the IAOC from all other Orthodox communities in South Africa (Brink-Kanyiles conversation on 26 May 2001).

4. KANYILES’ MINISTRY

Kanyiles has served as altar boy under his godfather, as pastor of the GVK and is presently rector (pastor loci) of St Luke the Evangelist. Moreover, he is also Bishop of a district and presides as Archbishop over the Synod of the IAOC.

4.1. Ministry at St Augustine of Hippo

As a young boy Kanyiles served as altar boy at St Augustine of Hippo Parish under his godfather, Bishop William Alexander. Seven days a week Daniel made the trek from his parental home to church, a few kilometres away. Here he assisted the bishop during mass. This meant being part of the procession, handing the bishop the various objects used during mass, etcetera. One wonders how this event shaped young Daniel. Did it help him in his later call to the ministry? Did he and the bishop ever discuss the priesthood as a future career for young Daniel?

4.2. Kanyiles as pastor in the Griekwa Volkskerk (GVK)

Daniel’s next stint in ministry was in the GVK. After his 1966 ordination in the AOC relations between Kanyiles and Alexander became tense. The apparent reason for this situation was Alexander’s refusal to consecrate Kanyiles as bishop (25 Jan 1969, letter of Kanyiles to AOC Consistory [Executive Committee]). Kanyiles subsequently resigned from the AOC and founded the GVK. From 1969 to 1971 he served as Superintendent Pastor of several congregations. He travelled to several towns around Kimberley where his congregations were. The only remains, however, of his stint as minister in the GVK are two 4A hardcover books: the Konferensie Notuleboek and a Doopregister. Kanyiles served in the GVK until December 1971. In that year the AOC Consistory offered him a bishopric because Alexander had died. With Kanyiles’ departure the GVK ceased to exist.

4.3. The Independent African Orthodox Church (IAOC)

To understand the IAOC one first has to know the AOC. What was the AOC, the predecessor of the IAOC all about? On 2 September 1921 the reverend Edward Henry McGuire and others founded the AOC in New York City. McGuire, a trained schoolteacher, clergyman and medical doctor, was a native of Antigua in the West Indies. Born in 1860 he migrated to the United States of America (USA) in 1893. He received his teacher and preacher training in the West Indies and his medical training in the USA. In the USA he pastored in the African Methodist Church (AMC) for a while and then joined the Protestant Episcopal Church (Anglican Church). This denomination ordained him as priest and he ministered in several states. He left this denomination in 1919. Afterwards he and others founded a new denomination, the Independent Episcopal Churches, in New York City. At its 1921 meeting McGuire was elected as bishop. This denomination later changed its name to the African Orthodox Church.

Over the years McGuire had become a faithful follower of Marcus Garvey, the Jamaican-born New York City-based black activist. Garvey was the founder and leader of the Universal Negro Association (UNIA) (see Newman’s article in The Negro Churchman, Jan 1976 for a bibliography on Garvey). Garvey and his UNIA influenced McGuire tremendously. One such area was his black militancy. He once said, “Erase the white gods from your hearts. We must go back to our own native church to our own God” (The Negro Churchman, Jan 1976:xiii). He ascended through the ranks of UNIA and finally became the Chaplin-General in 1920 and served until October 1921, when he resigned from the organisation. Meanwhile McGuire had outlined his vision for the newly formed Independent Episcopal Churches. At its founding meeting on 2 September 1921 he spelled it out: it should be a branch of the Holy Catholic Church controlled by Coloured men, gathering people of African descent in all quarters of the globe, yet showing prejudice to no other racial group, nor refusing such in its membership and privileges (The Negro Churchman, Jan 1976).

As bishop-elect McGuire needed a bishop to consecrate him. He turned to Joseph Renè Villate, Mar Timotheus, Archbishop-Metropolitan of the Old Catholic Church of America, Doctor Christiantissamus, First Premate of the Catholic Church (The Negro Churchman, Jan 1976:xv). Earlier Vilatte could not get himself consecrated as bishop in the USA and journeyed to Ceylon (Sri Lanka today), where Bishop Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvarez, Metropolitan of the Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon and Goa and India, consecrated him (The Negro Churchman, Jan 1976:xvi). Alvarez himself had received his consecration from Mar Paul Athanasius, Metropolitan-Archbishop and Legate of the Patriarch in Malabar. Mar Paul had previously received permission from Ignatius Peter III, Jacobite Patriarch of the Apostolic See of Antioch and the entire East to do this. This meant that Alvarez was consecrated by the authority of the (Jacobite or Western) Syrian Church of Antioch. This church’s orders are undisputed and were according to tradition founded by St Peter in the year 38 AD (The Negro Churchman, Jan 1976:xvi). Antioch still considers itself the Mother Church of the Christendom and believes that its line of apostolic succession predates Rome.

Vilatte consecrated McGuire as bishop on 28 September 1921 in the Church of Our Lady of Good Death in Chicago. McGuire in turn consecrated inter alia Daniel William Alexander (Johnson 1999:51-86). The latter was born in 1883 in Port Elizabeth (PE). His father was a native of the French colony, Martinique, and his mother was of Cuban-Javanese descent. Alexander left PE and moved to Johannesburg. Here he became a minister in the African Church under Bishop J M Khanyane. In October 1924 a group of clergymen seceded from this denomination and elected Alexander as their leader. They also decided to seek union with Bishop McGuire’s African Orthodox Church in the USA. McGuire appointed Alexander as Vicar Apostolic for South Africa and placed him and his group on probation pending further investigation. In 1927 Alexander travelled to the USA where McGuire consecrated him on 11 September. Bishops William W E J Robertson and A S Trotman assisted in this event at St Michael and All Angels AOC in Boston. This affiliation with the AOC in the USA lasted until 1969 when Alexander and the South African AOC severed their ties with the USA AOC.

McGuire consecrated more bishops as already said. He consecrated W E J Robertson (18 Nov 1923) who in turn consecrated H A Rogers on 7 November 1937. The latter consecrated the South African Ice Walter Mbino on 26 June 1960. Mbino consecrated Kanyiles as bishop on 2 July 1972. The following day Kanyiles became an archbishop. Kanyiles took the ecclesiastical name Mar James II.

Regarding church governance, the IAOC is episcopal (see Coertzen 1991 for a discussion of the episcopal, the reformed, the congregational and collegial church governance systems). At the head of the episcopal tradition is the archbishop or patriarch. The IAOC Church Order says, “The executive, supervisory general administrative and supreme authority of the IAOC shall be vested in an Archbishop, with the rank and authority of PATRIARCH ...” (Constitution and Canons, p 3). As patriarch Archbishop Kanyiles presides over the myriad of activities of Synod. The latter consists of the archbishop, the other bishop, the priests, deacons and other elected officials. Its executive body is called the Consistory.

Below Synod are the various dioceses, each supervised by a bishop. A diocese consists of a bishop and the clergy and their congregations, which are in its bounds. The next level in the hierarchy is the local parish (congregation) with its rector (pastor loci).

What is the liturgy of the IAOC like? It is outlined in The Divine Liturgy of the African Orthodox Church of 1936. A commission of the AOC prepared it. Article VII of the Constitution of the African Orthodox Church says, “A Commission, of which the Bishops shall prepare a Liturgy Orthodox in faith, derived from the Latin Rite, and published in the English language. The forms of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer shall be employed wherever suitable in the compilation of said Liturgy” (The Negro Churchman, Sep 1921). What is the Latin or Western Rite? It originated as a result of the Orthodox Tradition’s move to Europe and North America. As Orthodox persons moved to and settled in these countries they began to identify as “Western”, and not as “Eastern” anymore (Ware 1963:192-193). There is a belief that Western Orthodoxy should use specifically Western forms of prayer – not the Byzantine Liturgy, but the Old Roman or Gallican Liturgies. Kanyiles is therefore partially correct when he says that the IAOC is almost like the Roman Catholic Church (Cloete 1982:32). He should say that his denomination uses the Latin or Western Rite.

Kanyiles has put some of his Griqua and Khoi heritage into his liturgy. Ritual slaughtering is one such element. On 3 June 2001 St Luke the Evangelist (Kanyiles’ parish in Ritchie) ordained some officers. On Friday 1 June members of the congregation erected five altars for the five persons that were to be ordained. At each altar a sheep was to be slaughtered. This author participated in the erection of the altars. Ritual slaughtering is typical of Khoi culture with each major transition or !Nau.

4.4. Kanyiles as IAOC priest

In 1979 Kanyiles left Kimberley and moved to Ritchie. Here he began to organise the St Luke the Evangelist parish. They first met in his garage, then in a hall that was erected in his yard and finally in 1992 it moved to its present site. This two hundred and fifty member strong congregation has a number of organisations. There are inter alia the parish council, the Guild of St Monica (the women’s organisation) over which Mrs Kate Kanyiles presides. In fact, she presides over it at her parish and diocese and synod levels. There are also the Guild of St Mary (the young women), the Youth League, the Sunday school and the Gospel Choir. Kanyiles is a member of this choir.

4.5. Kanyiles as Archbishop

As Archbishop Kanyiles also presides over a diocese or a district, as the IAOC refers to it. Similarly to his parish there is also a large array of activities at this level. A highlight is its annual District Conference that occurs over the Easter weekend. The Annual Pascal Programme usually precedes this event. The Pascal Programme begins on Palm Sunday with Kanyiles usually as the preacher. Holy Week then follows. On Maundy Thursday the “Blessing of the Oils” occurs. These are the oils that will be used at the different services over the Easter weekend. Good Friday activities commence with the “Stations of the Cross Service” at 9:00. The 12:00 to 15:00 service deals with the “Seven Cross Words” where seven different preachers, each handling a crossword, expound on the Word. At 17:00 the District Conference begins with Kanyiles presiding. At this conference the various parishes report on their activities. The conference concludes on Easter.

4.6. Kanyiles as Patriarch

As Patriarch Kanyiles presides over Synod which consists of about ten congregations that are situated in the Northern Cape and the Northwest Province. Synod meets every October and Kimberley has been designated as its permanent seat. This writer attended the 78th Session (2002) and Kanyiles’ thirtieth as patriarch. Several things can be said about the IAOC Synod. First, as said elsewhere: it is small (less than ten clergy persons). Second, a highlight of Synod is the Patriarchal Charge. Delegates stand while the Patriarch reads it. In his 1985-1986 Charge the Patriarch reported, “We all know that our branch of the Orthodox Faith has made great progress, we have gained more NEW [sic] members, our finances are better, we have also procured New Sites [sic] for building purposes.” In his 1998-1999 Charge Kanyiles said, “This is my 27th year as leader of the Orthodox Faith in Africa. It also tell [sic] the World that, Yes indeed it is only whites that safeguard the Episcopate, but people of colour also has [sic] that responsibility.” This statement is of course not completely true: the Orthodox Faith in general has been in Africa much longer. What Kanyiles failed to say or what he really wanted to say rather, is that the IAOC’s brand of Orthodoxy has been around for seventy-five years. One thinks about the Coptic Church in Ethiopia and Egypt (an Orthodox Church) which has been around for much longer. Furthermore, he is not the leader but a leader of the Orthodox Faith. Third, the total financial receipts of Synod at its meetings are also meagre: far less than R10 000. No priest is fully salaried. Fourth, another highlight of Synod is the appointment of bishops and priests to dioceses and parishes. This event usually occurs at the end of Synod and causes much excitement among the clergy and members alike. The Patriarch has the prerogative to appoint whomever wherever he wants. Normally though there is extensive prior consultation if a priest or bishop is moved from a parish or diocese.

4.7. Kanyiles’ ecumenism

Over the years the archbishop has reached out to various other Orthodox communities outside South Africa. He has inter alia corresponded with the Santa Iglesia Catolica Orthodoxa De Oriente of Fairfield, Connecticut in the USA. This Spanish speaking denomination promised that it would include the IAOC in its next Church Directory (22 Apr 1975, letter to Kanyiles). It has congregations in the USA, Puerto Rica and the Dominican Republic. It also featured Kanyiles’ apostolic succession in its monthly magazine Alumbar Orthodoxa Catolica (Aug-Sep 1976).

The archbishop has also corresponded with the Christi Catholic Orthodox Church, formerly known as the Western Orthodox Church in America. Archbishop James F Mondok is its leader. This denomination originated in the state of Ohio in 1981 (Mondok, A Brief History, undated). Very assuring to Kanyiles must have been Mondok’s words, “Our faith is orthodox and our liturgical prayer is Western Rite as mentioned in the Greek book by Bishop Timothy Ware (Mondok’s Nov 1987 circular). Kanyiles could also relate to what Mondok said further, “We are small and growing but our history is long and vibrant” (Mondok’s Nov 1987 circular).

Important to Kanyiles was his correspondence with the reverend John C Simmons, Titular Archbishop of Caerleon of the Old Catholic Church in Great Britain (Simmons’ 12 Apr 1996 letter to Kanyiles) and the “Instrument of Consecration of the Reverend Father Daniel Kanyiles” (all these documents are in the Kanyiles Collection). There is no documentary proof as to when this relationship between Kanyiles and Simmons began, but it led to Kanyiles’ second consecration. This event occurred on Saturday 27 November 1993 at the Cathedral Church of the Good Shepherd in London. For this event the reverend Bertil Persson, Archbishop of Solna in Sweden, travelled to London to preach the consecration sermon. Persson who had befriended Kanyiles in 1974 is also owner of the St Ephrems Institute in Solna, Sweden. An accomplished writer the Archbishop’s Institute has also conveyed an honorary Doctor of Theology degree on Kanyiles and gave him an honorary professorate at the Institute. Now, one can rightfully ask, why a second consecration? Did Kanyiles do this to acquire more recognition with the overseas Orthodox family? It is interesting to note that he has not established any ties with the Greek or Russian or any other South African Orthodox community in South Africa. Neither is the IAOC affiliated to the South African Council of Churches. Why is this so? Is it because Kanyiles sees his denomination as inferior to these other communities? Or is there another reason? Nowhere in the Kanyiles Collection is there any writing to this effect. Does Kanyiles pursue these overseas connections for monetary gain? There is, however, no proof to Kanyiles soliciting any funds from overseas. He did, however, receive some funds from Archbishop Simmons for his consecration trip to England. The only conclusion that one can reach is that Kanyiles’ ecumenism, which is limited to contact with overseas Orthodox churchmen, is the result of his quest for greater recognition within the world-wide Orthodox family. Furthermore, when this writer asked Kanyiles regarding the IAOC’s non-affiliation with the South African Council of Churches he dismissed such affiliation by spiritualising the matter. He indicated that he did not want to be accepted by men but by God only (Brink-Kanyiles conversation on 27 May 2001). Moreover, it does not appear as if Kanyiles has any contact with the other denominations in Ritchie. His church building shares a common fence with the New Apostolic Church.

5. KANYILES AS POLITICIAN

As politician Kanyiles has been involved in the GVP, local politics at Ritchie and the National Party (NP). Currently he is also involved in the New National Party. What is his theological rationale for his involvement in politics? He outlined his motivation by asserting that a minister should be involved in all facets of his congregation’s and the community’s life (Brink-Kanyiles conversation on 31 May 2001). He therefore sees no conflict between his political, ecclesiastical and cultural activities.

5.1. Kanyiles and the Griekwa Volksparty (GVP)

Kanyiles, Peter Marais and others founded this party in the early 1980s. Marais served as chairperson while Kanyiles became its deputy chairperson (literature regarding the GVP is almost non-existent in the Kanyiles Collection). The South African government had earlier decided to create a tricameral system of government: one House or Assembly for the Whites, another for Coloureds and a third for Indians. These houses or assemblies would administer the affairs of these various population groups. The white Assembly would of course be the senior partner. Blacks were excluded from this new political dispensation because they were already accommodated in their various homelands. Kanyiles and his colleagues wanted to use this new political arrangement to the benefit of the Griquas. Kanyiles was a candidate in the 1984 general election and lost. He would later lament this event. He blamed the poor permanence of the GVP in the general election on the Griquas who voted for non-Griqua candidates instead of for their own (2 Apr 1988 speech to the Griekwa Nasionale Konferensie). After the general election the GVP gradually faded away and by 1990 it was a spent force. Marais would later become inter alia Premier of the Western Cape and Mayor of Cape Town.

5.2. Kanyiles and local politics

Since his arrival in Ritchie the Archbishop has been involved in local affairs. Politically he is presently the chairperson of the local branch of the New National Party (more about this in par 5.3). His branch meets on a regular basis. At these meetings Kanyiles does not discuss lofty political but bread-and-butter issues (the author has accompanied Kanyiles to some of these meetings). Regarding community affairs, Kanyiles has served inter alia on the old Management Council. This body was part of the tricameral government system. He served in several of its subcommissions and addressed a number of issues in the community. Housing was one such issue. Furthermore, Kanyiles also serves as Commissioner of Oaths.

5.3. Kanyiles and the NP and NNP

The Archbishop has served in the NP and is currently involved in the NNP. He has served at all three levels: nationally, provincially and locally. He became involved in the NP in the early 1990s. Why did he join this party given its history? Was it because the GVP had disintegrated by then or was it the lure of opportunity? These issues are unfortunately not discussed in the Kanyiles Collection. In any case, Mr Attie Jooste, then Member of Parliament for Ritchie and Modder River, recruited Kanyiles for the NP (Brink-Kanyiles conversation on 26 May 2001). He would later become Member of the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). Kanyiles joined the Ritchie branch and immediately became the deputy chairperson. Six months later the archbishop became the chairperson because the incumbent had resigned. Kanyiles immediately began to rally the members and was instrumental in the election of Mr Howard Isaacs as member of the House of Representatives (Tricameral House for Coloureds) in 1992. Furthermore, in this year Kanyiles also became the chairperson of the District Council (a collection of NP branches).

Kanyiles also had aspirations of his own for national office. He stood as candidate of the NP in the 1994 general election and lost. He was, however, redeemed in 1997. Mr Attie Jooste, who had meanwhile become a member of the National Council of Provinces, resigned and Kanyiles was asked to fill the vacancy. From 20 June 1997 to 30 July 1998 Kanyiles commuted between Ritchie and Cape Town. He soon became an ardent protagonist of Griqua rights in this body. This fact was acknowledged on the plaque that he received from the NCOP on 3 August 1998. He resigned because his ecclesiastical activities became neglected (see Hansard for this period for a record of Kanyiles’ speeches).

From 1998 to 1999 Kanyiles served as member of the Provincial Assembly of the Northern Cape (see the Minutes for this period of said body). This event afforded him proximity to Ritchie and more time for his various ecclesiastical, cultural and local affairs activities. It is the considered opinion of this writer that the archbishop’s stay in the Provincial Assembly was too brief for him to have made a major impact on it.

When the NP became the NNP in 1999 Kanyiles stood as candidate in the general election for the House of Assembly. He, however, lost to his African National Congress opponent. Kanyiles had by then come full circle: he had served in politics at the national, provincial and local level.

6. KANYILES AS KHOI AND GRIQUA CULTURAL LEADER

The archbishop has been active in the Griekwa Volks Organisasie (GVO), the Griekwa Nasionale Raad (GNR) and the National Council of Khoi Chiefs of South Africa (NCKCSA).

6.1. Kanyiles and the Griekwa Volks Organisasie

Paramount Chief Nicolaas Waterboer II founded this cultural organisation in 1955. This organisation seeks to promote the cultural interests of the Griquas in the Northern Cape (GVO Konstitusie of Grondwet). It has various branches in the Northern Cape with its headquarters in Ritchie (the archbishop’s office). Kanyiles became chairperson in 1959 and was appointed for life.

Over the years the GVO has been involved in many events. A few examples are cited. First, it reacted heavily to the Population Registration Act of 1949. In 1955 an official of the Population Registration Office from Pretoria visited Kimberley and classified the Griquas as Bantus (Africans) (Waldeman 2001:121). Henceforth they had to carry reference books, observe curfew regulations, register their service contracts, draw pensions at lower rates, pay toll taxes, are taught under the Bantu Education Act, etcetera. How did Kanyiles and the GVO react to this event? One of the things they did was to issue a “Bemagtigingsbrief” to all officers. All members of course also received membership cards. The former document stated that a person was a GVO officer and conduct business on behalf of the GVO. When stopped by the police these persons produced their “Bematigingsbriewe” or membership cards. According to Kanyiles these documents became very effective (Brink-Kanyiles conversation on 31 May 2001). The police did not arrest persons who carried these documents. Furthermore, Kanyiles also had several persons reclassified from Bantu (African) to Griqua. One such case was that of the Reid brothers (Tony, Titus and Godfrey) and Andries Witbooi. The archbishop wrote the Director General of Home Affairs regarding this case (letter of 3 Feb 1982). He stated the events that occurred. Furthermore, he also said that these individuals had been Afrikaans speaking and had been accepted as Griquas their entire lives. Moreover, Kanyiles and other GVO officials were also part of a delegation that went to see the Minister of Home Affairs on 7 September 1991 about the Griqua identity issue (Cape Times, 8 Sep 1981). Kanyiles frequently mentioned the issue of Griqua identity in his annual chairperson’s reports to the GVO.

Meanwhile, the Griquas (including the GVO) had sent several petitions to the government. The first reaction came in 1959 when Proclamation 46 was issued. It stated that the Griquas were a subgroup within the Coloured population. After further petitions the government issued Proclamation 123 of 1967. It said that the Griquas were on an equal footing with all the other Coloured groups. These proclamations cleared the way for the Griquas to become full South African citizens again.

Another action of the GVO was its participation in a Griqua suit against the British government and De Beers Consolidated Mines for R18 billion for losses allegedly incurred by being dispossessed of their land. These properties were in the Northern Cape and the Free State (Cape Argus, 8 Oct 1996). De Beers was sued for R8,7 billion for royalties on the mineral rights of the company’s Northern Cape and Free State diamond mines that the Griquas claimed were taken from their ancestors. They sued the British government for about R10 billion for “robbing and driving our ancestors off their land and property” in the 19th century. William Willen of the GVO said, “We have a righteous and just claim to any property or land in possession of De Beers Consolidated Mines in the historically Griqua areas of the Northern Cape and Free State” (Cape Argus, 8 Oct 1996).

6.2. Kanyiles and the Griekwa Nasionale Raad (GNR)

This organisation was founded on 18 April 1981 when the Griekwa Nasionale Konferensie of Paramount Chief E M S le Fleur and the GVO of Kanyiles formed a coalition. Le Fleur would be the chairperson and Kanyiles deputy chairperson (Griekwa Nasionale Raad Mandaat, 18 Apr 1981 [unpublished document]). A constitution was drawn up (Grondwet van die Griekwa Nasionale Raad). It outlined inter alia its motto, aims, Griqua identity, the Griqua flag, Griqua national anthem (“God ewig groot en goed”), its political stance, etcetera.

The GNR did several things. Two examples are cited. First, it rejected the call for a Griqua homeland. It argued that such a move would curtail the Griquas’ South African citizenship. Le Fleur, Kanyiles and others went to see the Minister of Home Affairs regarding this matter (Cape Times, 8 Sep 1981). During the 1960s and 1970s several African tribes had opted for the South African government’s policy of homelands. The Griquas refused this political option.

Another issue that the GNR pursued was the official recognition of the Griqua people as a separate people (Le Fleur’s letter of 9 Jun 1982 to Kanyiles). Consultations were held with the government about this matter. Furthermore, Kanyiles also mentioned this issue during his 2 April 1988 deputy chairperson speech at the GNR annual conference. He inter alia mentioned the history of the Griquas, the Afrikanerdom as example to the Griquas and other events in Griqua life.

6.3. Kanyiles as chairperson of the National Council of Khoi Chiefs of South Africa (NCKCSA)

The 1996 Constitution caused the founding of the Cape Cultural Heritage Development Organisation (CCHDO). Chief Joseph Little, a former college lecturer, after reading the new constitution (Act 108 of 1996) decided to found an organisation that could revive the structures of the Khoi groups south of the Gariep (Orange River) (Little & Cairncross, (unpublished, undated and untitled document regarding the founding and functioning of the CCHDO). They emphasised the following sections of the constitution: chapter 1 (section 6, language), chapter 9 (section 185, culture and language), chapter 12 (traditional leaders) and chapter 14 (section 232 and 235). He gathered some kindred spirits around him in Cape Town and on 23 August 1996 registered the CCHDO as a section 21 company (Brink 2000). Its aim is “to act officially in the interests of the cultural affairs of the Khoi peoples for the promotion and protection of their Cultural Heritage” (Little & Cairncross). The CCHDO consists of a number of Khoi groups (Brink 2000:2-14).

The CCHDO in turn gave birth inter alia to the National Council of Khoi Chiefs of South Africa (NCKCSA) (see Little’s Memorandum to All The Chiefs and Councils of the Khoisan Peoples, 5 Sep 2000). The latter needed a paramount chief. Little approached Kanyiles and he consented to fill that position. In April 1988 Kanyiles assumed the paramount chieftaincy and chairpersonship of the NCKCSA (Kanyiles’ Certificate of Appointment and document on Powers and Functions of the Paramount). As chairperson of the NCKCSA Kanyiles presides over its annual meetings and supervises its other activities. A highlight of the NCKCSA’s annual meeting is Kanyiles’ speech. In his 1999 speech at Oudtshoorn he inter alia dealt with his theological understanding of his leadership. He referred to the biblical figures Moses and David: God used them to lead his people. Kanyiles said of himself, “… and when I took cognasance [sic] of the fact that I was chosen by God to lead my people, I do accept the challenge”. He also called for unity among Khoi chiefs, honesty, trustworthiness, etcetera. In his January 2000 chairperson’s speech Kanyiles called for a “political leg” for the Khoi people. He reiterated the fact that it is all right for the NCKCSA to emphasise culture but to be taken seriously the Khoikhoi would have to organise themselves into a political party. At the 16 December 2001 Pretoria NCKCSA meeting he reiterated his call for a Khoi political party. Needless to say this issue has evoked much discussion. Many chiefs feel that the NCKCSA should not adopt a “political leg” because the South African government may not be favourably disposed to such a move. Furthermore, others believe that Khoi people would be pitted against themselves because the Khoikhoi are members of many political parties.

Another activity of the NCKCSA paramount chief and chairperson is the ordainment of new Khoi chiefs. One such occasion was the !Nau Sacred Ceremony held on 23-25 June 2000 at Schoemanspoort, Oudtshoorn. Kanyiles ordained several Khoi chiefs at this event (Verslag van die derde Inseëningsplegtigheid van Khoi-stamme op 24 Jun 2000 in Schoemanspoort, Oudtshoorn).

7. KANYILES’ SELF-IMAGE

The archbishop has a very healthy and positive self-image. Over the years he had accrued a number of titles. A few examples are cited. Academically, he claims various theological degrees: a BD from St Augustine of Hippo Seminary in Kimberley; an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree, a Doctor of Theology degree and professorship at the St Ephrems Institute of Solna, Sweden. Ecclesiastically, Kanyiles claims that he is the leader of the Orthodox faith in Africa. This, of course, is an exaggeration (as already pointed out), but it also demonstrates the fact that Kanyiles does not sell himself short. Furthermore, at his consecration he became Moran Mar James II. Some of his other titles are Knight Commander of the Order of St Gregory, the Illuminator and Chief Secretary of the Guild of Vilatte. Moreover, Kanyiles is very proud of his apostolic succession. Culturally, he is Paramount Chief of Griqualand West and of the fifteen Khoi tribes south of the Gariep, chairperson of the NCKCSA and life-long chairperson of the GVO. Moreover, Kanyiles’ badge or insignia also echoes his religious and cultural connectedness. It consists of a dove with a straw in its mouth (the dove from Noah’s ark), the scale of justice and the cannons of Griekwastad. Underneath these items are the Latin words: Iustitia Omnibus (Justice for All).

What do others think of Kanyiles? Locally, he is both saint and sinner. His congregation and a large part of the community, both Griqua and white, revere him. His political opponents, needless to say, however, loathe him. The author had spoken to representatives from both his followers and opponents.

8. CONCLUSION

Several things can be said about Kanyiles and his activities. First, the estimate that its American roots make the IAOC an atypical African independent denomination is correct. It is more Western and less syncretistic than the other African independent denominations (Prof R A Hill’s 1988 letter to Kanyiles). It does not have all the trimmings of those denominations. Second, Kanyiles’ lack of personal theological writings (he has no written sermon [he preaches extemporaneously and other theological treatises]) makes an estimate of his theology extremely difficult. The author could delineate only two building blocks in his theology: his Khoi identity, and the Orthodox Tradition. Third, Kanyiles’ ecumenism is unbalanced. Over the years he had contacted many overseas Orthodox communities but refuses affiliation to the South African Council of Churches. Neither has he reached out to other Orthodox communities in South Africa. In fact, it appears that he does not have much contact with the other denominations in Ritchie.

Fourth, the expansion of the IAOC is being hampered by the denomination’s lack of financial and academic resources. Most priests are tentmakers: they work secular jobs and serve as part-time pastors. Furthermore, the lack of properly academic trained priests also hinders the IAOC. One rarely hears of situations where IAOC priests or the denomination as such made judgements about social and other issues in public. Fifth, Kanyiles has made deep inroads in ecclesiastical, cultural and political circles. His tenure as patriarch has been a long and fruitful one. Moreover, he has distinguished himself as cultural leader in his native Griqualand West and beyond. As political leader the Archbishop has proved himself at the local, provincial and national level.

Finally, let us move into that precarious area of all: the future. Archbishop Kanyiles is proceeding well at this time, but where he is going? This author believes that there are certain tensions in him that the Archbishop has to resolve. One such tension is his relationship with the Griekwa Nasionale Konferensie. Since Kanyiles severed his ties with that body there has been no communication between him and this body. This event hampers Griqua progress and unity. Another tension is Kanyiles’ succession as archbishop in the IAOC. He has not designated anyone to succeed him. Or will he leave it to the IAOC to solve that issue? The same can be said about his succession as leader of the Griekwa Volks Organisasie. A further tension is his political prejudice. He will have to learn to work with other political parties, especially in Ritchie. This does not imply coalitions or mergers but for the good of the area he needs to get along other political parties. As senior statesman in his area, the writer believes, he should make the first move toward co-operation.

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